The term glycemia refers to the concentration of glucose in the blood . This value is generally expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL) and is detected through the blood glucose meter. The glucose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) of great biological importance, as (together with fatty acids) is one of the main sources of energy for the body. It derives in part from intestinal absorption , in part it is formed in the body both by conversion of other monosaccharides, and by metabolic transformation of proteins. There is also, especially at the muscular and hepatic level, a form of storage of glucose in the blood (ie blood sugar ) and is therefore determined by various factors Insulineresistentie.
The normal values of glucose in the blood, the so-called basal glycemia, oscillate between 65 and 110 mg / dl. Increasing or lowering these values leads to the risk of many serious diseases. Blood glucose levels are considered the most important parameters in blood measurement, precisely because a jump could be a symptom of serious complications. The control of blood sugar in the body is achieved through various physiological mechanisms.
However, this value can change for several reasons: blood sugar levels tend to drop dramatically in the morning, after a long night of sleep, or after several hours of fasting, After a meal (postprandial blood sugar), blood sugar levels rise because carbohydrates are synthesized into simple sugars, such as glucose, and absorbed from the intestine into the bloodstream, blood sugar drops after heavy exercise, because sugars are used as a source for muscle energy, extremely cold temperatures cause a great use of sugars and therefore cause a lowering of blood sugar, blood glucose values are also get changed by the gluconeogenesis process, during which glucose is generated from non-carbohydrate origins, particularly as glycerol, fatty acids and glucogenic amino acids, through another metabolism route, named glycogenolysis , the glycogen is split to promote the release of sugar in a the blood.
Furthermore, blood sugar is certainly of the extensively significant parameters in homeostasis, because glucose is needed to provide the metabolic energy required for many cellular functions. Several hormones regulate blood sugar, one of which is insulin. L insulin promotes the dependent glucose uptake of cells when rising levels.
Another responsible hormone is glucagon , which has the opposite effect – it raises blood glucose levels when there is a sharp drop. It also promotes the conversion of glycogen in the liver into glucose, which is later released into the blood.